From Davidson and Dulvy 2017. a, Stacked plot of total ocean area designated with any spatial protection, excluding those exclusively for sharks (all MPAs, light blue) and those exclusively for sharks (shark MPAs only, dark blue). b, Cumulative percentage gain in species’ geographic range size measured as EOO log10 km2 of 1,007 marine chondrichthyans, the endemic cut-off (median EOO), the IUCN Red List categories for endemic species and the taxonomic composition of the 99 imperilled endemics. c, The 12 imperilled endemic species with >10% of their EOO within a no-take MPA of any IUCN protected area category (1a–VI or not reported). The bar colour represents the IUCN extinction risk category, grey bars represent Data Deficient species that are predicted to be threatened based on body size and ecological traits. Only the Kermadec spiny dogfish is found within a no-take, strictly protected MPA (IUCN protected area category 1a). Silhouettes were created by Christopher G. Mull from images by Nick G. Botner (Rajiformes, Carcharhiniformes) and R. Aidan Martin (Orectolobiformes, Squatiniformes, Squaliformes, Heterodontiformes), and reproduced with permission.